Friday, May 3, 2013

Vegetable fibers are healthy

The fibers are generally components of plant cells that enter the food in the small intestine are not subject to the process of digestion. In the large intestine under the action of bacteria is only partially decompose. 

Vegetable fibers are mainly composed of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides): cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, ligin, plant resins, gums (guar, santan). 

The most common division is based on solubility in water, the insoluble and soluble fiber. Generally, insoluble fibers have a significant role in preventing intestinal (digestive disorders), while soluble fiber important for the regulation of diabetes, lower cholesterol levels and treatment of obesity. 

Unlike makronutrijenasa (other carbohydrates, proteins and fats) which give the body the necessary energy, fiber does not give the body energy, but because they are predominantly found in plant foods represent a valuable source of vitamins and minerals play an important role in the body. However, not all fibers of the same part of the body. 

Cellulose is a polysaccharide (glucan), which forms the main ingredient of cell walls of plant tissues.Cellulose is insoluble in water. Natural sources of cellulose: integral and wholemeal flour, bran, cabbage, peas, green beans, beans, Brussels sprouts, peel cucumbers, peppers, apples and carrots. 

Hemicellulose (xylan and mannan) is a component of the cell wall polysaccharides and some seeds. Is partially soluble in water, and the water creates a gel. Natural sources of hemicellulose are: bran, whole grains, legumes, broccoli, beet root and mustard. 

Cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the fiber, absorbing water and swelling increases the total amount of fecal matter, and at the same time reduces the time food spends long digestive tract. 

Lignin (phenylpropan) are woody fiber plants which are used for tying and support, and give her strength. It is a structural element of the peripheral membrane seeds. Lignin is insoluble in water, acids and bases.Lignin sources are cereals, bran, vegetables ripened (ripening increases lignin content), eggplant, green beans, strawberries, pears and radishes. Lignin reduces the digestibility of fiber, binds to bile acids and thus inhibits the absorption of cholesterol. 

Pectin (arabogalaktani) It kompotna cell wall polysaccharides without lignin. Soluble in hot water gives polysaccharide. Sources of pectin are apples, citrus fruits, berries, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, dried peas, beans, potatoes, strawberries, raspberries and blackberries. 

Pectin in the intestine, forming a gel that covers the intestinal lining attaching bile acids in the digestive tract. By binding with bile acids reduces the absorption of fat and cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol ("bad"), while the concentration of protective HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged. Pectin gel lining the intestines and prevents the absorption of sugar after a meal which is especially important in the diet dijabeticara.Pektin, too, improves firmness chairs, binds heavy metals and brings them out of the body. 

Protopektin complex is insoluble pectin with cellulose, hemi-cellulose and metal ions. During the heat treatment and during the ripening of fruits and vegetables disrupted the complex and releases pectin (softening of the ripe fruit). 

Plant resins and rubbers are water-soluble polysaccharides. 
Foods rich in plant resins and tires are: oatmeal, oat flour products, dried beans, Gers. Plant resins behave as pectins, interfere with the absorption in the stomach and small intestine. 

The water dissolved fibers give a gel or viscous fluids to ferment under the influence of red bacteria. Their fermentation occurring short chain fatty acids, which reduce the level of free ammonia lowering the pH of intestinal contents. In this way it shortens the duration and reduces the intensity of the exposure of the intestinal mucosa free ammonia, which of all nitrogen-absorbing substances in the cell and at the most toxic. 

Dietary fibers are now the focus of interest because it revealed their role in the reduction of fat in the blood that is now blamed for a quote many diseases of modern man (arteriosclerosis). 

The main role of fiber in your body; 

* Maintain good health, 
* Might prevent heart disease, 
* Lowers cholesterol, 
* Lowers and stabilizes blood sugar, 
* Prevents constipation, 
* Prevents breast cancer, colon cancer, diverticulosis, 
* Might prevent obesity, 
* To act as antioxidants, 
* They contain phytoestrogens. 

Soluble fiber 

Soluble fiber, caused by bacteria of the colon, water is broken down into 75% and 25% were solid masses include: battery scrap, intestinal wall cells, mucus (phlegm), short-chain fats (10% bitutrat main source of energy for intestinal lining), propionate and aceto entering the portal circulation. 

The main roles of soluble fiber include: 

- Slow down the release of glucose in the blood (fiber in the intestines swell tying water from the intestinal contents and intestinal contents thus make thicker. Such a situation occurs hormonal response, and reduces the secretion of insulin, which is important for the regulation of blood sugar in diabetics.) 

- Lowers cholesterol levels because the fibers bind to bile acids and salts, which are normally associated cholesterol, and thus increases its excretion from the body. 

Insoluble fiber 

Not fermented by bacteria (not dissolve) in the intestinal wall and have a laxative effect. Mass chairs increases and accelerates the passage, because they swell in water absorbed from the intestine. 

If you believe that your diet lacks fiber, it is wise to increase their intake. You may need to take Racin intake must be slow and gradual. If you suddenly bring large amount of fiber can reach the bloated stomach which is followed by the appearance of gas accelerated peristalsis and diarrhea. It is very important that you eat foods that contain a lot of fiber drink plenty of fluids, because failure to do so may cause irritation to the intestines or bowel blockage. 

What is the optimal intake of fiber dijetinih? 

There is no default value, but many nutritionists recommend for: 
- Adult: 20-35 grams / day or 19-13 g/1000cal 
- Children: over 2 years should start with fiber intake, as follows: 5 years + g / day 

It is important to enter both soluble and insoluble fiber. 

Increased fiber intake (more than recommended) can be negative: 

* Can impair the absorption of drugs 
* Reduced ability to digest and absorb food 
* Can mechanically damage the intestinal lining, 
* Phytic acid in grains and vegetables creates complexes (chelates) with minerals (Ca and Fe) and reduces their absorption,
* A large amount of phosp
horus in foods rich in fiber creates problems for kidney patients to create stones in the urinary tract. 

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